SQLite Encryption Extension: Documentation (2023)

1.0 Introduction

This file describes the SQLite Encryption Extension (SEE) forSQLite. The SEE allows SQLite to read and write encrypteddatabase files. All database content, including the metadata, isencrypted so that to an outside observer the database appears tobe white noise.

A version of SQLite that includes SEE is also able to read andwrite normal database files created with a public domain versionof SQLite. But the public version of SQLite will not be ableto read or write an encrypted database file. Indeed, no versionof any known software will be able to access an encrypteddatabase file without knowing the encryption key.

The SEE is actually a set of extensions employing various encryption algorithms. The following encryption algorithms arecurrently supported:

  • AES-256 in OFB mode (recommended for all new development)
  • AES-128 in OFB mode
  • AES-128 in CCM mode
  • RC4 with security enhancements (legacy only)

2.0 License

The core SQLite library is in the public domain. However, the extensionsneeded to read and write an encrypted database file are licensedsoftware. You should only be able to see this software if you havea license.

Your license is perpetual. You have paid a one-time fee that allows youto use and modify the software forever. You can ship as many copied ofthe software to your customers as you want so long as you ensure thatonly compiled binaries are shipped (you cannot distribute source code)and that your customers cannot make additional copies of the software to use for other purposes.

You can create multiple products that use this software as longas all products are developed and maintained by the same team.For the purposes of this paragraph, a "team" is a work unit whereeverybody knows each others names. If you are in a large companywhere this product is used by multiple teams, then each team shouldacquire their own separate license, or an enterprise license.

3.0 How To Compile

Your application sees SEE as a single large file of C-code that is adrop-in replacement for the SQLite amalgamation. The SEEsource-code file works and compiles just like the public-domain "sqlite3.c"amalgamation. If you already build your application using thepublic-domain "sqlite3.c" file, then to build using SEE you merelyreplace the public-domain "sqlite3.c" with an SEE-enabled "sqlite3.c"file and recompile.

There are nine different SEE-enabled "sqlite3.c" files to choose from:

  1. sqlite3-see-aes256-openssl.c
  2. sqlite3-see-aes256-cryptoapi.c
  3. sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.c
  4. sqlite3-see-cccrypt.c
  5. sqlite3-see-aes128-ofb.c
  6. sqlite3-see-aes128-ccm.c
  7. sqlite3-see.c
  8. sqlite3-rc4.c
  9. sqlite3-xor.c

The recommended procedure for adding SEE into your application is to copyone of these files into your application source tree, renaming it as "sqlite3.c" and overwriting the public-domain "sqlite3.c" source file,then recompile. After recompiling, your application should continue workingexactly as it did before, reading and writing ordinary unencrypted SQLitedatabases. Once you have recompiled and verified that everything stillworks, then go back in and add a PRAGMA (described below) that activatesencryption to your application code, and you are done.

3.1 Source Code Files In The SEE Distribution

The following are the source-code files used to implementthe SQLite Encryption Extension:


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" file, adding support for encryption using the AES-256 in OFB mode by linking against the external OpenSSL library.


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" source file, adding encryption capabilities using the AES256 in OFB mode using the CryptoAPI native interface on Windows.


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" file, adding support for encryption using the AES-256 in OFB mode using a built-in copy of the Rijndaal reference implementation.


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" filef, adding support for the AES-128 and AES-256 encryption algorithms, in OFB mode, using the external CCCrypt encryption. CCCrypt is the default encryption library on MacOS and iOS, and so this implementation of SEE is recommended for those platforms.

The see-ccrypt.c module normally only does AES128 encryption. However, when see-cccrypt is compiled with -DCCCRYPT256, it will use AES256 if and only if the key is exactly 32 bytes long.


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" file. This replacement adds support for the AES-128 encryption algorithm in OFB mode using the Rijndaal reference implementation.


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" file. This replacement adds support for the AES-128 encryption algorithm in CCM mode. CCM mode includes a message authentication code which provides authentication in addition to confidentiality. This uses the Rijndaal reference implementation for AES.


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" file, adding support for encryption using the RC4 algorithm. RC4 is no longer considered secure. You should not use this implementation of SEE. It is provided for historical compatibility only.


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" source file, adding support for encryption using any of the RC4, AES128-OFB, or AES258-OFB algorithms. The algorithm used is based on a prefix to the encryption key. If the key material begins with "rc4:" then RC4 encryption is used. If the key material begins with "aes128:" then AES128-OFB is used. If the key material begins with "aes256:" then AES256-OFB is used. If none of these three valid prefixes appear on the key, then AES128-OFB is the default algorithm. A valid prefix is removed from the key prior to being passed on to the encryption algorithm.


This file is a drop-in replacement for the public-domain "sqlite3.c" source file, adding pseudo-encryption which does nothing more than XOR the database against a repeated copy of the encryption key. This variant of SEE does not provide true encryption. It is for demonstration use only, or for use in cases where it is desirable to obfuscate a database file without actually encrypting it, perhaps due to legal constraints.


A copy of ordinary, unencrypted SQLite that contains additional hooks needed to add encryption. The other encrypted SQLite modules above are all copies of this file with additional code prepended and appended to do the encryption work. This file is provided for reference only and is probably not useful for development.


This file contains the interface definitions for SQLite. Other programs that link against SQLite will need this file, and you will need this file in order to compile the CLI, but you do not need this file to compile SQLite itself.


This file contains source code for the "CLI", the Command Line Interface program named "sqlite3.exe" that you can use to access and control SQLite database files. This file is different from the "shell.c" file that comes with the public-domain version of SQLite. This shell.c has been enhanced to make use of the encryption extension.

3.2 Building And Compiling The SEE Code

To compile SEE into a static library, select an appropriate"sqlite3-see-*.c" source file (containing the algorithmand implementation you desire), then compile that filejust like you would compile anordinary public-domain "sqlite3.c" source file. On unix systems,the command sequence would be something like this:

 gcc -c sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.c ar a sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.a sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.o

On windows, the commands are more like this:

 cl -c sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.c lib /out:libsee.lib sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.obj

3.3 Building A Shared-Library Or DLL

We encourage you to statically link SQLite against yourapplication. However, if you must use SQLite as a separate DLL orshared library, you can compile as follows on Linux:

 gcc -fPIC -shared -o libsee.so sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.c

Or on Windows:

 cl -DSQLITE_API=__declspec(dllexport) sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.c /link /dll /out:libsee.dll

3.4 Building The Command-Line Shell Program

To compile the CLI, just hand the shell.c source file to yourC compiler together with either the static library preparedabove, or the original source code files. A typical command onLinux is:

 gcc -o sqlite3 shell.c sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.c -lpthread -ldl

On a Mac:

 gcc -o sqlite3 shell.c sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.c -ldl

On Windows with MSVC:

 cl /Fesqlite3.exe shell.c sqlite3-see-aes256-ofb.c

For an added performance boost when building the CLI, consideradding the -DSQLITE_THREADSAFE=0 option. The CLI is singlethreaded and SQLite runs faster if it doesn't have to useits mutexes.

SEE can also be built for Windows Phone 8,UWP 10, and Android.

4.0 Command-Line Usage

The CLI is the sameCLI used by public-domain SQLitethough with enhancements to support encryption.There are new command-line options ("-key", "-hexkey", and "-textkey")for specifying the encryption key.Examples:

 sqlite3 -key secret database.db sqlite3 -hexkey 736563726574 database.db sqlite3 -textkey secret2 database.db

If the key is omitted or is an empty string no encryption is performed.

There are three different key formats. The first format (-key) takesthe key string and repeats it over and over until it exceeds the numberof bytes in the key of the underlying algorithm (16 bytes for AES128,32 bytes for AES256, or 256 bytes for RC4). It then truncates the resultto the algorithm key size. That approach limits the key space since itdoes not allow 0x00 bytes in the key. The second format (-hexkey)accepts the key as hexadecimal, so any key can be represented. If theprovided key is too long it is truncated. If the provided key is tooshorted, it is repeated to fill it out to the algorithm key length.The third format (-textkey) computes a strong hash on the input keymaterial and uses that hash to key the algorithm. The -textkey formatis recommended for new applications.

4.1 Changing the encryption key

The SEE-enabled CLI also includes newdot-commands".rekey", ".hex-rekey", and ".text-rekey" for changing the encryption key:

 .rekey OLD NEW NEW .hex-rekey OLD NEW NEW .text-rekey OLD NEW NEW

The first argument is always the old password, in exactly the formatas it was supplied to the "-key", "-hexkey", or "-textkey" optionswhen the command-line tool was started. If the the database waspreviously unencrypted, use an empty string "" as the key. The2nd and 3rd arguments are the new encryption key. You mustenter the new key twice to check for typos - the rekey will notoccur unless both instances of the new key are the same. Toencrypt a previously unencrypted database, do this:

 .rekey "" new-key new-key VACUUM

The VACUUM step is not required to enable encryption but it ishighly recommended. The VACUUM command ensures that every pageof the database file has a secure nonce.The VACUUM is only needed when an existing,non-empty database file is encrypted for the first time.

To decrypt a database do this:

 .rekey old-key "" ""

The .rekey command only works with text keys. To rekey a databasethat contains a binary key use the ".hex-rekey" command instead.The .hex-rekey command works just like .rekey except the new key isentered as hexadecimal instead of text. The ".text-rekey" commandcomputes a hash of the NEW argument and uses that hash as the encryptionkey.

5.0 C Interface

If you deploy the SQLite encryption extension as a DLL or sharedlibrary then you must first activate the library by invoking:


The argument is your product activation key. The activation keyis available as plain-text in the source code so you can clearlysee what it is. The purpose of the activation key is to preventone of your customers from extracting the SQLite library and usingit separately from your application. Without knowledge of theactivation key, which only you should know, your users will beunable to access the encryption features.

If you are unable to invoke the C-interface to sqlite3_activate_see()(perhaps because you are accessing SQLite through a wrapper layer) thenyou can also alternatively activate the encryption features using a PRAGMA:

 PRAGMA activate_extensions='see-7bb07b8d471d642e';

Use the sqlite3_open() API to open an encrypted databaseor any database that you want to rekey. Immediately afteropening, specify the key using sqlite3_key_v2():

 int sqlite3_key_v2( sqlite3 *db, /* The connection from sqlite3_open() */ const char *zDbName, /* Which ATTACHed database to key */ const void *pKey, /* The key */ int nKey /* Number of bytes in the key */ );

If the pKey argument is NULL or nKey is 0, then thedatabase is assumed to be unencrypted. The nKey parameter canbe arbitrarily large, though only the first 256 bytes (RC4) or16 bytes (AES128) or 32 bytes (AES256) will be used. In SEEversions 3.15.0 and later, if nKeyis negative, then pKey is assumed to be a zero-terminated passphrasestring. In that case the passphrase is hashed and the hash isused as the key to AES algorithm. The passphrase itself is usedas the key for RC4.

CAUTION: The feature of using a passphrase hash when nKey<0was added in version 3.15.0. If you use nKey<0 in any SEE versionprior to 3.15.0, encryption will be silently disabled, just as if youhad set nKey=0.

The see-ccrypt.c module uses AES128 encryption by default.However, if see-ccrypt.c is compiled with -DCCCRYPT256 and ifthe sqlite3_key_v2() interface is called with nKey==32, thenAES256 encryption is used instead.

If you specify an incorrect key, you will not get an error messageright away. But the first time you try to access the databaseyou will get an SQLITE_NOTADB error with a message of"file is encrypted or is not a database".

The zDbName parameter specifies which ATTACH-ed database should getthe key. Usually this is "main". You can pass in a NULL pointer asan alias for "main". Unless you have a good reason to do otherwise,it is best to pass in a NULL pointer for the zDbName parameter.

You can change the key on a database using the sqlite3_rekey() routine:

 int sqlite3_rekey_v2( sqlite *db, /* Database to be rekeyed */ const char *zDbName, /* Which ATTACHed database to rekey */ const void *pKey, int nKey /* The new key */ );

A NULL key decrypts the database.

Rekeying requires that every page of the database file be read,decrypted, reencrypted with the new key, then written out again.Consequently, rekeying can take a long time on a larger database.

Most SEE variants allow you to encrypt an existing database thatwas created using the public domain version of SQLite. This isnot possible when using the authenticating version of the encryptionextension in see-aes128-ccm.c. If you do encrypt a database thatwas created with the public domain version of SQLite, no noncewill be used and the file will be vulnerable to a chosen-plaintextattach. If you call sqlite3_key_v2() immediately after sqlite3_open()when you are first creating the database, space will be reservedin the database for a nonce and the encryption will be much stronger.If you do not want to encrypt right away, call sqlite3_key_v2() anyway,with a NULL key, and the space for the nonce will be reserved in thedatabase even though no encryption is done initially.

A public domain version of the SQLite library can read and writean encrypted database with a NULL key. You only need the encryptionextension if the key is non-NULL.

6.0 Using the "key" PRAGMA

As an alternative to calling sqlite3_key_v2() to set the decryptionkey for a database, you can invoke a pragma:

 PRAGMA key='your-secret-key';

You must invoke this pragma before trying to do any other interaction with the database. The key pragma only works withstring keys. If you use a binary key, use the hexkey pragmainstead:

 PRAGMA hexkey='796f75722d7365637265742d6b6579';

For the equivalent of the --textkey option, in which the textpassphrase is hashed to compute the actual encryption key, use:

 PRAGMA textkey='your-secret-key';

Use the rekey, hexrekey, or textrekey pragmas to change the key.So, for example, to change the key to 'demo2' use one of:

 PRAGMA rekey='demo2'; PRAGMA hexrekey='64656d6f32'; PRAGMA textrekey='long-passphrase';

Through the use of these pragmas, it is never necessary to directlyinvoke the sqlite3_key_v2() or sqlite3_rekey_v2() interfaces. This meansthat SEE can be used with language wrappers that do not know aboutthose interfaces.

The "key", "hexkey", and "textkey" PRAGMA statements expect the samekey strings as the "-key", "-hexkey", and "-textkey" argumentsto the command-line shell, respectively.

The key PRAGMAs will return a string "ok" if they successfully loadan encryption key into SEE. If you invoke one of these pragmas ona system that does not support encryption, or if the key loadingoperation fails for any reason, then nothing is returned. Note thatthe "ok" string is returned when any key is loaded, not necessarilythe correct key. The only way to determine if the key is correct isto try to read from the database file. An incorrect key will resultin a read error.

7.0 Using The ATTACH Command

The key for an attached database is specified using the KEY clauseat the end of the ATTACH statement. Like this:

 ATTACH DATABASE 'file2.db' AS two KEY 'xyzzy';

If the KEY clause is omitted, the same key is used that is currentlyin use by the main database. If the attached database is notencrypted, specify an empty string as the key. The argument tothe KEY keyword can be BLOB constant. For example:

 ATTACH DATABASE 'file2.db' AS two KEY X'78797a7a79';

Using text as the KEY on an ATTACH statement expects the same key asone would provide to the "-key" option of the command-line shell. ABLOB value for KEY is means to use the same key as would have beenprovided by the "-hexkey" option to the command-line shell. There isno mechanism for specifying a passphrase to be hashed on an ATTACHstatement. If you are using a hashed key, you must compute the hashyourself and supply it as a BLOB.

8.0 Key Material

The amount of key material actually used by the encryption extensiondepends on which variant of SEE you are using. With see-rc4.c, thefirst 256 byte of key are used. With the see-aes128-ofb andand see-aes128-ccm variants, the first 16 bytes of the key are used.With see-aes256-ofb, the first 32 bytes of key are used.

If you specify a key that is shorter than the maximum key length, thenthe key material is repeated as many times as necessary to complete thekey. If you specify a key that is larger than the maximum key length,then the excess key material is silently ignored.

For the "-textkey" option, up to 256 bytes of the passphrase are hashedusing RC4 and the hash value becomes the encryption key.Note that in this context the RC4 algorithm is being used as a hashfunction, not as a cryptographic function, so the fact that RC4 isa cryptographically weak algorithm is irrelevant.

8.1 Encryption algorithm selection using a key prefix

For the "sqlite3-see.c" SEE variant, the key may begin with a prefixto specify which algorithm to use. The prefix must be exactlyone of "rc4:", "aes128:", or "aes256:". The prefix is not used as part ofthe key sent into the encryption algorithm. So the real key shouldbegin on the first byte after the prefix. Take note of the followingimportant details:

  • The prefix is case sensitive. "aes256:" is a valid prefix but "AES256:" is not.

  • If the key prefix is omitted or misspelled, then the encryption algorithm defaults to "aes128" and the misspelled prefix becomes part of the key.

  • The encryption algorithm can be changed using the sqlite3_rekey_v2() interface or the .rekey command-line. For example, to convert a legacy RC4-encrypted database to use AES-256, enter:

    .rekey rc4:mykey aes256:mykey aes256:mykey
  • The algorithm prefix strings work on the "sqlite-see.c" variant of SEE only. For any of SEE implementations, any prefix on the key is interpreted as part of the key.

  • The nKey parameter on sqlite3_key() and sqlite3_key_v2() must include the size of the prefix in addition to the size of the key.

  • When using PRAGMA hexkey or PRAGMA hexrekey, the key prefix must be hex encoded just like the rest of the key.

    PRAGMA hexkey='aes128:6d796b6579'; -- Wrong!!PRAGMA hexkey='6165733132383a6d796b6579'; -- correct

9.0 The Importance of a Nonce

The encryption is much more secure if it has a random nonce value oneach page of the database. Without a nonce, the encryption can be brokenusing a chosen-plaintext attack. Purists will argue (rightly) thatthe encryption is weak without a nonce.

The number of bytes of nonce on each page of the database is determinedby byte 20 of the database file. This value is set to zero by defaultin databases created by the public-domain version of SQLite. You can change this byte to a positive value by running theVACUUM commandusing an SEE-enabled version of SQLite.

You can check the size of the nonce for a database by using the ".dbinfo" command in an ordinarysqlite3.exe command-line shellprogram. The output of the ".dbinfo" command will look something like this:

database page size: 4096write format: 1read format: 1reserved bytes: 12 ← Nonce sizefile change counter: 3504448735database page count: 14190freelist page count: 0schema cookie: 107schema format: 4default cache size: 0autovacuum top root: 0incremental vacuum: 0text encoding: 1 (utf8)user version: 0application id: 0software version: 3008008number of tables: 53number of indexes: 53number of triggers: 0number of views: 0schema size: 14257

Bytes 16 through 23 of the database are unencrypted. Thus, you canalways check to see how much nonce is being used, even on an encrypteddatabase file, just by looking at byte 20. It is recommended thatany product that uses encryption check this byte to make sure itis being set to 4 or 12 or 32 and not 0.

10.0 Security Checklist

When using SEE in an application, it is recommended that you double-checkthat everything is implemented correctly, and that you are getting strongencryption, by performing the following tests, at a minimum:

  1. Use the SEE-enabled CLI to run the "sqlite3 $DATABASE .dbinfo" command (adding an appropriate -key, -hexkey, or -textkey argument) and verify that your encrypted database files contain a nonce. The nonce should be at least 12 bytes.
  1. Use the SEE-enabled CLI to read an encrypted database, but change the last character of the supplied key by a single character value. Verify that a minor change to the end of the key like this renders the database unreadable. The error message should be "file is not a database". Repeat this test with multiple variations of the key. Confirm that the database is only accessible if the key is exactly correct.
  1. Try to compress an encrypted database file and verify that the file is uncompressible. In other words, run a program like "zip" or "gzip" against the encrypted database and verify that compression does not change the size of the file more than a few bytes smaller.


  1. TEMP tables are not encrypted.
  1. In-memory (":memory:") databases are not encrypted.
  1. Bytes 16 through 23 of the database file contain header information which is not encrypted.

11.0 How SEE Works

Each page is encrypted separately. The key to encryption is a combination of the page number, the random nonce (if any) and the database key. The data is encrypted in both the main database andin the rollback journal or WAL file but is unencrypted when held in memory. This means that if an adversary is able to view the memory usedby your program, she will be able to see unencrypted data.

The nonce value is changed by a rollback.

The see-aes128-ccm.c variant uses AES in CCM mode with a 16-byte randomly choosen nonce on each page and and 16-byte messageauthentication code (MAC). Thus with crypto3ccm.c, 32 bytesof every database pages are taken up by encryption andauthentication overhead. Consequently, database files createdusing crypto3ccm.c may be a little larger. Also, because theMAC is computed whenever a page is modified, and verified whena page is read, crypto3ccm.c will often be a little slower.Such is the cost of authentication.

This page was generated in about0.006s byFossil 2.22 [2eb2077c1b] 2023-04-10 20:23:22


How much is SQLite encryption extension? ›

A perpetual source code license for the SQLite Encryption Extension (SEE) costs US $2000.00.

What is the difference between SQLCipher and SQLite encryption extension? ›

SQLCipher is an extension to SQLite, but it does not function as a loadable plugin for many reasons. Instead, SQLCipher modifies SQLite itself, and is maintained as a separate version of the source tree. SQLCipher releases are baselined against a specific source version of SQLite.

What file extension does SQLite recommend? ›

Filename extension.sqlite, .sqlite3, .db, .db3, .s3db, .sl3
Internet media typeapplication/vnd.sqlite3
Magic number53 51 4c 69 74 65 20 66 6f 72 6d 61 74 20 33 00 (zero-terminated ASCII "SQLite format 3")
Initial release2004-06-18
Open format?yes (Public Domain)
1 more row

How do I encrypt an existing SQLite database? ›

SQLite doesn't support encrypting database files by default. Instead, you need to use a modified version of SQLite like SEE, SQLCipher, SQLiteCrypt, or wxSQLite3.

How much does full disk encryption cost? ›

While costs vary dramatically based on factors such as organization size and the industry involved, the most expensive aspect of full disk encryption is the "user time incurred operating computer" featuring the technology.

Does it cost money to encrypt data? ›

How much does encrypting data cost? According to the Ponemon Institute, the average cost of full-disk computer data encryption is $235.

How to avoid database lock in SQLite? ›

In order to avoid deadlocks in SQLite, programmers who want to modify a SQLite database start the transaction with BEGIN IMMEDIATE . If the transaction cannot acquire the necessary locks, it will fail, returning SQLITE_BUSY .

Is SQLite deprecated? ›

Save this answer. Show activity on this post. In which case, does that mean that SQLLite is deprecated in Android? No.

What is the alternative to SQLite with encryption? ›

SQLite alternatives Comparison Matrix
Edge DatabaseAndroid / iOSData level encryption
Azure SQL EdgeNowill provide encryption
Couchbase LiteAndroid / iOSDatabase encryption with SQLCipher (256-bit AES)
extremeDBiOSAES encryption
InterBase ToGo / IBLiteAndroid / iOS256 bit AES strength encryption
11 more rows
Mar 11, 2022

When should I stop using SQLite? ›

A good rule of thumb is to avoid using SQLite in situations where the same database will be accessed directly (without an intervening application server) and simultaneously from many computers over a network. SQLite will normally work fine as the database backend to a website.

Why is SQLite so popular? ›

SQLite is an embedded, server-less relational database management system. It is an in-memory open-source library with zero configuration and does not require any installation. Also, it is very convenient as it's less than 500kb in size, which is significantly lesser than other database management systems.

How to optimize SQLite database? ›

SQLite performance tuning
  1. Create indices, but with caution.
  2. Use the query planner to analyze your queries.
  3. Optimize queries that involve IS NOT.
  4. Improve write speed with the Write-Ahead-Log.
  5. Measure everything.
  6. Tune the cache size.
  7. Use REPLACE INTO to create or update a row.
Sep 13, 2020

How do I know if my SQLite database is encrypted? ›

Inspect the first 16 bytes of the database file directly, if they are equal to the string "SQLite format 3\000" then the file is not encrypted, and is a standard SQLite database. If something happens and a crash occurs during sqlcipher_export, the original database will be left untouched.

What are two ways to encrypt data in a database? ›

The two types of data encryption methods are Symmetric Encryption and Asymmetric Encryption. Symmetric encryption is also known as private-key cryptography or secret key algorithm and requires both the parties of sender and receiver to have access to the same key to decrypt the data.

How do I encrypt an entire database? ›

Encrypt a database by using a password
  1. Open the database in Exclusive mode. How do I open a database in Exclusive mode? ...
  2. On the File tab, click Info, and then click Encrypt with Password. ...
  3. Type your password in the Password box, type it again in the Verify box, and then click OK.

Is Full Disk Encryption overkill? ›

In fact, it only hurts: if a user's security procedures are too onerous, that user will eventually cut corners. Simply put, full-disk encryption is overkill for the use case you most likely have.

What is the disadvantage of full disk encryption? ›

The main drawback with full disk encryption is that it can ensure data security only when the device is at rest. This means that the data is encrypted only when the device is locked. When the device is unlocked, anyone can open and access any files in the device.

Is full disk encryption enough? ›

Disk encryption protects information stored on a disk drive—such as an external hard drive, laptop, or even enterprise storage—by preventing the drive from being accessed without the proper password or authentication credentials. While it is an effective way to protect data, disk encryption alone is simply not enough.

Can the government access encrypted data? ›

Because of warrant-proof encryption, the government often cannot obtain the electronic evidence necessary to investigate and prosecute threats to public and national safety, even with a warrant or court order.

What is the downside of using encryption? ›

Encryption Disadvantages:

The user would be unable to explore the encrypted file if the password or key got the loss. However, using simpler keys in data encryption makes the data insecure, and randomly, anyone can access it.

What are the cons to encrypting data? ›

Data Encryption Cons

The more data encryption keys there are the more difficult IT administrative tasks for maintaining all of the keys can be. If you lose the key to the encryption, you have lost the data associated with it.

How secure is SQLite? ›

SQLite should never crash, overflow a buffer, leak memory, or exhibit any other harmful behavior, even when presented with maliciously malformed SQL inputs or database files. SQLite should always detect erroneous inputs and raise an error, not crash or corrupt memory.

What causes a SQLite database to be locked? ›

If you are encountering the “SQLite database is locked” error, it means that the database you are trying to access is already in use by some other process. This can be caused by a number of different reasons, but the most common cause is that another connection to the database has not been properly closed.

How do I unlock a locked SQLite database? ›

1 Answer
  1. First create a backup of the database, which will have no locks on it.
  2. Then after, replace the database with its backup copy.
  3. Follow the latter script to do the same where .x.Sqlite is the Sqlite database file:
  4. Want to learn about databases in depth? ...
  5. Further, you will have a file named backup.
Dec 12, 2020

What are the weaknesses of SQLite? ›

Disadvantages of SQLite:

Lacks user management and security features. Not easily scalable.

What are the disadvantages of SQLite? ›

Cons of SQlite
  • It has a limited database size.
  • You do not have access to the network.
  • It's not suitable for large scale apps.
Aug 13, 2022

Can SQLite corrupt? ›

SQLite databases are remarkably rebust. Application faults and power failures typically leave the content of the database intact. However, it is possible to corrupt an SQLite database.

Is SQLite vulnerable? ›

All historical vulnerabilities reported against SQLite require at least one of these preconditions: The attacker can submit and run arbitrary SQL statements. The attacker can submit a maliciously crafted database file to the application that the application will then open and query.

What is the best encryption for passwords in database? ›

To protect passwords, experts suggest using a strong and slow hashing algorithm like Argon2 or Bcrypt, combined with salt (or even better, with salt and pepper). (Basically, avoid faster algorithms for this usage.) To verify file signatures and certificates, SHA-256 is among your best hashing algorithm choices.

Does SQLite enforce foreign keys? ›

SQLite has supported foreign key constraint since version 3.6. 19. The SQLite library must also be compiled with neither SQLITE_OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY nor SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER. To check whether your current version of SQLite supports foreign key constraints or not, you use the following command.

How big is too big for a SQLite database? ›

An SQLite database is limited in size to 140 terabytes (247 bytes, 128 tibibytes). And even if it could handle larger databases, SQLite stores the entire database in a single disk file and many filesystems limit the maximum size of files to something less than this.

Why not use SQLite in production? ›

SQLite is a serverless database, it doesn't provide direct network access to its data. This access is built into the application. If the data in SQLite is located on a separate machine from the application, it will require a high bandwidth engine-to-disk link across the network.

Does SQLite use a lot of memory? ›

How large will your database get in the future? SQLite requires too much memory to run if the database is over 1GB in size (256 bytes of RAM for each MB of database space). mySQL can have a maximum database size of 4GB.

Which one is better SQL or SQLite? ›

SQLite supports many features of SQL and has high performance and does not support stored procedures. SQL is Structured Query Language which is used with databases like MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, etc. It is not a database itself. SQLite is a portable database resource.

How many companies use SQLite? ›

Around the world in 2023, over 10513 companies have started using SQLite as Relational Databases tool.

What is the difference between SQL SQLite and SQLite? ›

The most basic difference between SQLite and SQL is : SQL is a query language which is used by different SQL databases. It is not a database itself. SQLite is a database management system itself which uses SQL.

Why is SQLite not scalable? ›

SQLite's scalability is limited and only appropriate for smaller databases. Since the platform does not have any user management facility, it is not suitable for multiple user access. For larger files, the memory requirement singificantly increases for SQLite DB.

Why is SQLite so slow? ›

The SQLite docs explains why this is so slow: Transaction speed is limited by disk drive speed because (by default) SQLite actually waits until the data really is safely stored on the disk surface before the transaction is complete. That way, if you suddenly lose power or if your OS crashes, your data is still safe.

How to protect data in SQLite? ›

You want to protect sensitive data so that only those other things will go wrong. With the SQLite database, this is actually NOT possible at all. You need users to be able to both read AND write to it, meaning the ACL of the folder where the SQLite DB lives has to allow them those permissions, too.

Should my database be encrypted? ›

Encryption is one of the most important security features to keep your data as secure as possible. Depending on the data you are handling, it is not always a must, but you should at least consider it a security improvement in your organization.

Can encrypted database be hacked? ›

Can hackers see encrypted data? No, hackers cannot see encrypted data, as it is scrambled and unreadable until the encryption key (or passphrase) is used to decrypt it. However, if a hacker manages to obtain the encryption key or crack the encryption algorithm, then they can gain access to the data.

How secure is database encryption? ›

Data encryption is a security method where information is encoded and can only be accessed or decrypted by a user with the correct encryption key. Encrypted data, also known as ciphertext, appears scrambled or unreadable to a person or entity accessing without permission.

What are three 3 methods for encrypting data? ›

The three major encryption types are DES, AES, and RSA. While there are many kinds of encryption - more than can easily be explained here - we will take a look at these three significant types of encryption that consumers use every day.

What are the three 3 different encryption methods? ›

3 Types of Encryption to Protect Your Data
  • Symmetric. The symmetric encryption method uses a single key both to encrypt and decrypt the data. ...
  • Asymmetric. The second major encryption method is asymmetric encryption, also sometimes known as public key encryption. ...
  • Hashing.

What is the strongest encryption algorithm? ›

AES 256-bit encryption is the strongest and most robust encryption standard that is commercially available today.

What is the best way to encrypt SQL database? ›

Applies to: SQL Server.
  1. Create a master key.
  2. Create or obtain a certificate protected by the master key.
  3. Create a database encryption key and protect it by using the certificate.
  4. Set the database to use encryption.
Mar 3, 2023

What is the major issue with database encryption? ›

Disadvantages: Performance issues can be caused for backup processes, especially with relational databases. Extra resources for key management are required since more keys need to be managed. Windows Encrypted File System (EFS) with Microsoft operating systems is the primary example of such technology.

How do I manually encrypt data? ›

How to encrypt a file
  1. Right-click (or press and hold) a file or folder and select Properties.
  2. Select the Advanced button and select the Encrypt contents to secure data check box.
  3. Select OK to close the Advanced Attributes window, select Apply, and then select OK.

How much does SQLite cost? ›

The SQLite source code is in the public domain, and is free for use by anyone and for any purpose. No license is required. However, some users desire a license so that they can have warranty of title, or just because their company lawyers say they need one.

How much does end to end encryption cost? ›

Price Tag for End-to-End Encryption: $4.8 Billion, Mercator Says.

Is SQLite free to use? ›

SQLite source code is in the public-domain and is free to everyone to use for any purpose.

Is SQLite license free? ›

SQLite is an in-process library that implements a self-contained, serverless, zero-configuration, transactional SQL database engine. The code for SQLite is in the public domain and is thus free for use for any purpose, commercial or private.

Do people still use SQLite? ›

SQLite is one of the most popular and easy-to-use relational database systems. It possesses many features over other relational databases. Many big MNCs such as Adobe, use SQLite as the application file format for their Photoshop Lightroom product.

What is the downside of end-to-end encryption? ›

E2EE does have limitations, however. It does not hide message metadata, such as the time the message was sent and who it was sent to. It also only protects the message in transit – once the message reaches its endpoint, it is still vulnerable to attack and needs to be covered by other security measures.

What are the cons of end-to-end encryption? ›

Disadvantages of end-to-end encryption

The security that end-to-end privacy offers might be limited if a third party gets physical access to the device at either end of the transmission — not only can they read existing messages, but also send new ones.

Can anyone hack end-to-end encryption? ›

With end-to-end encryption by contrast, the only people who can access the data are the sender and the intended recipient(s) – no one else. Neither hackers nor unwanted third parties can access the encrypted data on the server. In end-to-end, encryption occurs at the device level.

When should you not use SQLite? ›

A good rule of thumb is to avoid using SQLite in situations where the same database will be accessed directly (without an intervening application server) and simultaneously from many computers over a network. SQLite will normally work fine as the database backend to a website.

Is SQLite really reliable? ›

SQLite is resilient in the face of corrupt inputs, including maliciously designed database files and SQL strings. Extensive fuzz-testing ensures that corrupt inputs will not lead to crashes or undefined behavior, but will instead cause sensible errors to be reported back to the application.

How does SQLite make money? ›

If you feel like you really need to purchase a license for SQLite, Hwaci, the company that employs all the developers of SQLite, will sell you one. All proceeds from the sale of SQLite licenses are used to fund continuing improvement and support of SQLite.

Is SQLite database just a file? ›

An SQLite database is a single ordinary file on disk (with a well-defined file format).

Is it hard to learn SQLite? ›

What is SQLite? If you are familiar with relational database systems, it is likely that you have heard of heavyweights such as MySQL, SQL Server or PostgreSQL. However, SQLite is another useful RDBMS that is very simple to set up and operate that has many distinct features over other relational databases.


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